Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse; Life-Threatening Depression; Accidental Exposure; Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome; and Hepatotoxicity; Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants; Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
- Oxycodone XR exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing Oxycodone XR, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors or conditions.
- Consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose
Life-threatening Respiratory Depression
- Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Oxycodone XR. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Oxycodone or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow Oxycodone tablets whole; crushing, chewing, or dissolving Oxycodone XR can cause rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone
- Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper.
- Accidental ingestion of Oxycodone XR, especially in children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
- Prolonged use of Oxycodone XR during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available
- Oxycodone products containing acetaminophen have been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed the maximum daily limit, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death
- Reserve concomitant prescribing of opioids and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
- Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
- Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to:
- complete a REMS-compliant education program,
- counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,
- emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
- consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.
FDA and Industry Communications
Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS)
Patient Counseling Information